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A Rousing List of Nobel Prize Winners in Physiology or Medicine

List of Nobel Prize Winners in Physiology or Medicine
Alfred Nobel mentioned 'Physiology or Medicine' as the third subject area in his will for distribution of the Nobel Prize. Check out the following list of all the laureates who were honored for their contribution in the subject of Physiology or Medicine.
ScienceStruck Staff
Last Updated: Jun 3, 2018
"I started my career as a surgeon 25 years ago. But it turned out that I am not talented as a surgeon, so I decided to change my career. But I still feel that I am a doctor. So my goal, all my life, is to bring this stem-cell technology to the bedside."
~ Shinya Yamanaka (Nobel Prize Winner, 2012)
The 'dynamite' inventor, Alfred Nobel, mentioned five subject areas for the distribution of the Nobel Prize, with 'Physiology or Medicine' being one of them. The award is given on an annual basis, and consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money.
In the year 1974, the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation decided that no prize would be awarded posthumously, unless the death occurred after the prize was announced. However, in the year 2011, after the announcement of the prize, it was discovered that one of the medical laureates, Ralph Steinman, passed away three days earlier. After a discussion it was decided by the Nobel Foundation to award the prize as it was declared without knowing of his death.
In the field of Physiology or Medicine, 104 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 204 individuals for their extra-ordinary performance. Of these, 38 prizes have been awarded to a single laureate, 32 prizes shared between two laureates, and 34 prizes have been shared between three laureates. The rules of the prize prohibit it being shared by more than 3 people.

* Nobelprize.org
List of Laureates
1901-1920
Emil A. von Behring (Germany)
"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"
1901
Sir Ronald Ross (United Kingdom)
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"
1902
Niels R. Finsen (Denmark)
"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"
1903
Ivan P. Pavlov (Russia)
"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"
1904
Robert Koch (Germany)
"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"
1905
Camillo Golgi (Italy)
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (Spain)
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"
1906
Charles L.A. Laveran (France)
"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"
1907
Paul Ehrlich (Germany)
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (France, Russia)
"in recognition of their work on immunity"
1908
Emil Theodor Kocher (Switzerland)
"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"
1909
Albrecht Kossel (Germany)
"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"
1910
Allvar Gullstrand (Sweden)
"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"
1911
Alexis Carrel (France)
"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"
1912
Charles R. Richet (France)
"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"
1913
Robert Bárány (Austria)
"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"
1914
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year 1915
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year 1916
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year
1917
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year
1918
Jules Bordet (Belgium)
"for his discoveries relating to immunity"
1919
Schack A.S. Krogh (Denmark)
"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"
1920
1921-1940
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year 1921
Archibald V. Hill (United Kingdom)
"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"
1922
Otto Meyerhof (Germany)
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"
1922
Frederick G. Banting (Canada)
John J. R. Macleod (Scotland)
"for the discovery of insulin"
1923
Willem Einthoven (Netherlands)
"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"
1924
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year 1925
Johannes A.G. Fibiger (Denmark)
"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"
1926
Julius Wagner-Jauregg (Austria)
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"
1927
Charles J.H. Nicolle (France)
"for his work on typhus"
1928
Christiaan Eijkman (Netherlands)
"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"
1929
Sir Frederick G. Hopkins (United Kingdom)
"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"
1929
Karl Landsteiner (United States)
"for his discovery of human blood groups"
1930
Otto H. Warburg (Germany)
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
1931
Edgar D. Adrian (United Kingdom)
Sir Charles S. Sherrington (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
1932
Thomas H. Morgan (United States)
"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"
1933
George R. Minot (United States)
William P. Murphy (United States)
G.H. Whipple (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anemia"
1934
Hans Spemann (Germany)
"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"
1935
Sir Henry H. Dale (United Kingdom)
Otto Loewi (United States)
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
1936
Albert Szent-Györgi von Nagyrapolt (Hungary, United States)
"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"
1937
Corneille J. F. Heymans (Belgium)
"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"
1938
Gerhard Domagk (Germany)
"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"
1939
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year 1940
1941-1960
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year 1941
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year 1942
Carl Peter Henrik Dam (Denmark)
"for his discovery of vitamin K"
1943
Edward A. Doisy (United States)
"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"
1943
Joseph Erlanger (United States)
Herbert S. Gasser (United States)
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers"
1944
Sir Alexander Fleming (United Kingdom)
Sir Ernst Boris Chain (United Kingdom)
Howard Walter Florey (Australia)
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"
1945
Hermann J. Muller (United States)
"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"
1946
Carl Ferdinand Cori (United States)
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (United States)
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"
1947
Bernardo A. Houssay (Argentina)
"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"
1947
Paul Hermann Müller (Switzerland)
"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"
1948
Walter R. Hess (Switzerland)
"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"
1949
António Moniz (Portugal)
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses"
1949
Philip S. Hench (United States)
Edward C. Kendall (United States)
Tadeus Reichstein (Switzerland)
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
1950
Max Theiler (United States, South Africa)
"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"
1951
Selman A. Waksman (United States)
"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
1952
Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (United Kingdom)
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"
1953
Fritz Albert Lipmann (United States)
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"
1953
John Franklin Enders (United Kingdom)
Frederick Chapman Robbins (United Kingdom)
Thomas Huckle Weller (United Kingdom)
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
1954
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (Sweden)
"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"
1955
André Frédéric Cournand (United States)
Werner Forssmann (Germany)
Dickinson W. Richards (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
1956
Daniel Bovet (Italy)
"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"
1957
Joshua Lederberg (United States)
"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"
1958
George W. Beadle (United States)
Edward L. Tatum (United States)
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
1958
Arthur Kornberg (United States)
Severo Ochoa (United States, Spain)
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
1959
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (Australia)
Sir Peter Brian Medawar
(United Kingdom, Brazil)
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"
1960
1961-1980
Georg von Békésy (United States)
"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
1961
Francis Harry Compton Crick (United Kingdom)
James Dewey Watson (United States)
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (United Kingdom, New Zealand)
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"
1962
Sir John Carew Eccles (Australia)
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (United Kingdom)
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"
1963
Konrad Bloch (United States)
Feodor Lynen (Germany)
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
1964
François Jacob (France)
André Lwoff (France)
Jacques Monod (France)
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
1965
Peyton Rous (United States)
"for his discovery of tumor-inducing viruses"
1966
Charles Brenton Huggins (United States)
"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"
1966
Ragnar Granit (Finland, Sweden)
Haldan Keffer Hartline (United States)
George Wald (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"
1967
Robert W. Holley (United States)
Har Gobind Khorana (India)
Marshall W. Nirenberg (United States)
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
1968
Max Delbrück (United States)
Alfred D. Hershey (United States)
Salvador E. Luria (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
1969
Julius Axelrod (United States)
Ulf von Euler
(Sweden)
Sir Bernard Katz
(United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
1970
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. (United States)
"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"
1971
Gerald M. Edelman (United States)
Rodney R. Porter (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
1972
Karl von Frisch (Germany)
Konrad Lorenz (Austria)
Nikolaas Tinbergen (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns"
1973
Albert Claude (Belgium)
Christian de Duve (Belgium, United States)
George E. Palade (Romania, United States)
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
1974
David Baltimore (United States)
Renato Dulbecco (United States, Italy)
Howard Martin Temin (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
1975
Baruch S. Blumberg (United States)
D. Carleton Gajdusek (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"
1976
Roger Guillemin (United States)
Andrew V. Schally (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
1977
Rosalyn Yalow (United States)
"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"
1977
Werner Arber (Switzerland)
Daniel Nathans (United States)
Hamilton O. Smith (United States)
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"
1978
Allan M. Cormack (United States)
Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield (United Kingdom)
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"
1979
Baruj Benacerraf (Venezuela)
Jean Dausset
(France)
George D. Snell
(United States)
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
1980
1981-2000
Roger W. Sperry (United States)
"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"
1981
David H. Hubel (United States)
Torsten N. Wiesel (Sweden)
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"
1981
Sune K. Bergström (Sweden)
Bengt I. Samuelsson (Sweden)
Sir John R. Vane (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"
1982
Barbara McClintock (United States)
"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"
1983
Niels K. Jerne (Denmark)
Georges J.F. Köhler (Germany)
César Milstein (United Kingdom, Argentina)
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"
1984
Michael S. Brown (United States)
Joseph L. Goldstein (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
1985
Stanley Cohen (United States)
Rita Levi-Montalcini (Italy, United States)
"for their discoveries of growth factors"
1986
Susumu Tonegawa (Japan)
"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"
1987
Sir James W. Black (United Kingdom)
Gertrude B. Elion (United States)
George H. Hitchings (United States)
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
1988
J. Michael Bishop (United States)
Harold E. Varmus
(United States)
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
1989
Joseph E. Murray (United States)
E. Donnall Thomas (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
1990
Erwin Neher (Germany)
Bert Sakmann (Germany)
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
1991
Edmond H. Fischer (Switzerland, United States)
Edwin G. Krebs (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
1992
Sir Richard J. Roberts (United Kingdom)
Phillip A. Sharp (United States)
"for their discoveries of split genes"
1993
Alfred G. Gilman (United States)
Martin Rodbell (United States)
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
1994
Edward B. Lewis (United States)
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (Germany)
Eric F. Wieschaus (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
1995
Peter C. Doherty (Australia)
Rolf M. Zinkernagel (Switzerland)
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defense"
1996
Stanley B. Prusiner (United States)
"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"
1997
Robert F. Furchgott (United States)
Louis J. Ignarro (United States)
Ferid Murad (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
1998
Günter Blobel (United States)
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
1999
Arvid Carlsson (Sweden)
Paul Greengard (United States)
Eric R. Kandel (United States)
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
2000
2001-2015
Leland H. Hartwell (United States)
Sir Tim Hunt (United Kingdom)
Sir Paul M. Nurse (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
2001
Sydney Brenner (United Kingdom)
H. Robert Horvitz (United States)
Sir John E. Sulston (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death"
2002
Paul Lauterbur (United States)
Sir Peter Mansfield (United Kingdom)
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
2003
Richard Axel (United States)
Linda B. Buck (United States)
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
2004
Barry J. Marshall (Australia)
J. Robin Warren (Australia)
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
2005
Andrew Z. Fire (United States)
Craig C. Mello (United States)
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
2006
Mario R. Capecchi (United States)
Sir Martin J. Evans (United Kingdom)
Oliver Smithies (United States)
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
2007
Harald zur Hausen (Germany)
"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"
2008
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (France)
Luc Montagnier (France)
"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"
2008
Elizabeth H. Blackburn (United States, Australia)
Carol W. Greider (United States)
Jack W. Szostak (United States, Poland)
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
2009
Sir Robert G. Edwards (United Kingdom)
"for the development of in vitro fertilization"
2010
Ralph M. Steinman (Canada, United States)
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"
2011
Bruce A. Beutler (United States)
Jules A. Hoffmann (France)
"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
2011
Sir John B. Gurdon (United Kingdom)
Shinya Yamanaka (Japan)
"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"
2012
James E. Rothman (United States)
Randy W. Schekman (United States)
Thomas C. Südhof (United States, Germany)
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"
2013
May-Britt Moser (Norway)
Edvard Moser (Norway)
John O'Keefe (U.S./U.K.)
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"
2014
William C. Campbell (Ireland)
Satoshi Omura (Japan)
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"
2015
Youyou Tu (China)
"for his discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria"
2015