Alfred Nobel, in his will, declared a large share of his fortune for awarding Nobel Prizes to those, who shall make inventions and discoveries in the subject of physics. Here is a list of Nobel laureates in Physics till date.
“Everything is energy and that’s all there is to it. Match the frequency of the reality you want and you cannot help but get that reality. It can be no other way. This is not philosophy. This is physics.”
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden looks after the nomination and selection of Nobel Laureates in physics all over the world since 1901. If we see till date, 47 physics awards have been given to one laureate, 31 have been given to two laureates, and 29 have been shared between three laureates.
To add a fact, Lawrence Bragg is the youngest laureate to win an award in the subject of physics at the age of 25 years along with his father. He is not only the youngest award winner in the field of physics but also among the rest of the winners from other fields.
Check out the list of laureates, who earned the Nobel prize award for their extraordinary work and research in the field of physics.
* Source: Nobelprize.org
List of Laureates
|Wilhelm C. Röntgen (Germany)
Awarded in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him.
|Hendrik A. Lorentz (Netherlands)
Pieter Zeeman (Netherlands)
Awarded in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena.
|Antoine Henri Becquerel (France)
Awarded for discovery of spontaneous radioactivity.
|Pierre Curie (France)
Marie Curie (Poland/France)
Awarded for recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel.
|John Strutt (United Kingdom)
Awarded for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.
|Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (Germany)
Awarded for work on cathode rays.
|Joseph John Thomson (United Kingdom)
Awarded for investigation on the conduction of electricity by gases.
|Albert Michelson (United States)
Awarded for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid.
|Gabriel Lippmann (France)
Awarded for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.
|Guglielmo Marconi (Italy) Karl Ferdinand Braun (Germany)
Awarded for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy.
|Johannes Diderik van der Waals (Netherlands)
Awarded for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.
|Wilhelm Wien (Germany) Awarded for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat.
|Nils Gustaf Dalén (Sweden)
Awarded for discovery of automatic regulators used in lighting lighthouses and light buoys.
|Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (Netherlands) Awarded for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium.
|Max von Laue (Germany)
|William Henry Bragg (United Kingdom)
William Lawrence Bragg (United Kingdom) Awarded for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays.
|Charles G. Barkla (United Kingdom)
Awarded for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements.
|Max Planck (Germany)
Awarded for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta.
|Johannes Stark (Germany)
|Charles E. Guillaume (Switzerland)
Awarded for his discoveries of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys.
|Albert Einstein (Germany)
Awarded for discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.
|Niels Bohr (Denmark)
Awarded for investigation of structure of atoms and radiation emanating from them.
|Robert A. Millikan (United States)
Awarded for work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect.
|Karl M.G. Siegbahn (Sweden)
|James Franck (Germany)
Gustav Hertz (Germany)
Awarded for discovery of laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom.
|Jean Baptiste Perrin (France)
Awarded for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium.
|Arthur H. Compton (United States)
Awarded for discovery of Compton phenomenon.
|Charles T. R. Wilson (United Kingdom)
Awarded for method of making the path of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapor.
|Owen W. Richardson (United Kingdom)
Awarded for work on the thermionic phenomenon and discovery of the Richardson law.
|Prince Louis-Victor de Broglie (France) Awarded for discovery of the wave nature of electrons.
|Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (India)
Awarded for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him.
|Werner Heisenberg (Germany)
Awarded for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen.
|Erwin Schrödinger (Austria)
Paul Dirac (United Kingdom) Awarded for discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory.
|James Chadwick (United Kingdom)
Awarded for the discovery of the neutron.
|Victor Francis Hess (Austria)
Awarded for discovery of cosmic radiation.
|Carl David Anderson (United States)
Awarded for discovery of the positron.
|Clinton Joseph Davisson (United States)
George P. Thomson (United Kingdom)
Awarded for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals.
|Enrico Fermi (Italy)
Awarded for discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons and for identification of new radioactivity elements.
|Ernest Lawrence (United States)
Awarded for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements.
|Otto Stern (United States)
Awarded for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton.
|Isidor Isaac Rabi (United States)
Awarded for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.
|Wolfgang Pauli (Austria)
Awarded for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle.
|Percy Williams Bridgman (United States)
Awarded for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics.
|Edward Victor Appleton (United Kingdom)
Awarded for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer.
|Patrick M. S. Blackett (United Kingdom)
Awarded for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation.
|Hideki Yukawa (Japan)
Awarded for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces.
|Cecil F. Powell (United Kingdom)
Awarded for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method.
|John Douglas Cockcroft (United Kingdom)
Ernest T. S. Walton (Ireland)
Awarded for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles.
|Felix Bloch (United States)
Edward M. Purcell (United States)
Awarded for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith.
|Frits Zernike (Netherlands)
Awarded for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope.
|Max Born (United Kingdom)
Awarded for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction.
|Walther Bothe (Germany)
Awarded for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith.
|Willis E. Lamb (United States)
Awarded for discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum.
|Polykarp Kusch (United States)
Awarded for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron.
|John Bardeen (United States)
Walter H. Brattain (United States)
William Shockley (United States)
Awarded for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect.
|Tsung-Dao Lee (China, United States)
Chen Ning Yang (China, United States)
Awarded for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles.
|Pavel Cherenkov (Soviet Union)
Ilya Frank (Soviet Union)
Igor Y. Tamm (Soviet Union)
Awarded for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect.
|Owen Chamberlain (United States)
Emilio Gino Segrè (Italy)
Awarded for discovery of antiproton.
|Donald A. Glaser (United States)
Awarded for the invention of the bubble chamber.
|Robert Hofstadter (United States)
Awarded for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons.
|Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (Germany)
Awarded for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name.
|Lev Davidovich Landau (Soviet Union)
Awarded for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium.
|Eugene Paul Winger (Hungary/United States)
Awarded for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles.
|Maria Goeppert-Mayer (United States)
J. Hans D. Jensen (Germany)
Awarded for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure.
|Nikolai G. Basov (Soviet Union)
Alexander Prokhorov (Soviet Union)
Charles H. Townes (United States)
Awarded for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.
|Richard P. Feynman (United States)
Julian Schwinger (United States)
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga (Japan)
Awarded for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles.
|Alfred Kastler (France)
Awarded for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms.
|Hans A. Bethe (United States)
Awarded for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.
|Luis W. Alvarez (United States)
Awarded discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis.
|Murray Gell-Mann (United States)
Awarded for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions.
|Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (Sweden)
Awarded for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics.
|Louis Néel (France)
Awarded for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics.
|Dennis Gabor (Hungary/United Kingdom)
Awarded for invention and development of the holographic method.
|John Bardeen (United States)
Leon N. Cooper (United States)
John R. Schrieffer (United States)
Awarded for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory.
|Ivar Giaever (Norway/United States)
Leo Esaki (Japan)
Awarded for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively.
|Brian D. Josephson (United Kingdom)
Awarded for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect
|Martin Ryle (United Kingdom)
Antony Hewish (United Kingdom)
Awarded for their observations and inventions: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.
|Aage Bohr (Denmark)
Ben Roy Mottelson (Denmark)
Leo James Rainwater (United States)
Awarded for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.
|Burton Richter (United States)
Samuel C. C. Ting (United States)
Awarded for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind.
|Philip W. Anderson (United States)
Nevill Francis Mott (United Kingdom)
John H. Van Vleck (Germany)
Awarded for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.
|Pyotr Kapitsa (Soviet Union)
Awarded for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics.
|Arno Allan Penzias (United States)
Robert Wilson (United States)
Awarded for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.
|Sheldon Lee Glashow (United Kingdom)
Abdus Salam (Pakistan)
Steven Weinberg (United States)
Awarded for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current.
|James W. Cronin (United States)
Val Logsdon Fitch (United States)
Awarded for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons.
|Nicolaas Bloembergen (United States)
Arthur Schaalow (United Kingdom)
Awarded for development of laser spectroscopy.
|Kai M. Siegbahn (Sweden)
Awarded for development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy.
|Kenneth G. Wilson (United States)
Awarded for phenomena in connection with phase transitions.
|Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (India)
Awarded for study of the structure and evolution of the stars.
|William A. Fowler (United States)
Awarded for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.
|Carlo Rubbia (Italy)
Simon van der Meer (Netherlands)
Awarded for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction.
|Klaus von Klitzing (Germany)
Awarded for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect.
|Ernst Ruska (Germany)
Awarded for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope.
|Gerd Binnig (Germany)
Heinrich Rohrer (Switzerland)
Awarded for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope.
|Johannes Georg Bednorz (Germany)
Karl Alexander Müller (Switzerland)
Awarded for their breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials.
|Leon M. Lederman (United States)
Melvin Schwartz (United States)
Jack Steinberger (United States)
Awarded for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino.
|Norman F. Ramsey (United States)
Awarded for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks.
|Hans G. Dehmelt (United States)
Wolfgang Paul (Germany)
Awarded for the development of the ion trap technique.
|Henry W. Kendall (United States)
Jerome I. Friedman (United States)
Richard E. Taylor (Canada)
Awarded for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.
|Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (France)
Awarded for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers.
|Georges Charpak (Poland/France)
Awarded for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.
|Russell Alan Hulse (United States)
Joseph H. Taylor Jr. (United States)
Awarded for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.
|Bertram Brockhouse (Canada)
Awarded for the development of neutron spectroscopy and for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter.
|Clifford G. Shull (United States)
Awarded for the development of the neutron diffraction technique and for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter.
|Martin Perl (United States)
Awarded for discovery of tau lepton and contribution to lepton physics.
|Frederick Reines (United States)
Awarded for discovery of neutrino and contribution to lepton physics.
|David M. Lee (United States)
Douglas D. Osheroff (United States)
Robert C. Richardson (United States)
Awarded for discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.
|Steven Chu (United States)
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (France)
William D. Phillips (United States)
Awarded for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.
|Robert B. Laughlin (United States)
Horst L. Störmer (Germany)
Daniel C. Tsui (United States)
Awarded for discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.
|Gerardus ‘t Hooft (Netherlands)
Martinus J. G. Veltman (Netherlands)
Awarded for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics.
|Zhores I. Alferov (Russia)
Herbert Kroemer (Germany)
Awarded for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed and optoelectronics.
|Jack S. Kilby (United States)
Awarded for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
|Eric A. Cornell (United States)
Carl E. Wieman (United States)
Wolfgang Ketterle (Germany)
Awarded achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.
|Raymond Davis Jr. (United States)
Masatoshi Koshiba (Japan)
Awarded for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos.
|Riccardo Giacconi (Italy)
Awarded for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources.
|Alexeyevich Abrikosov (Russia)
Vitaly L. Ginzburg (Russia)
Anthony J. Leggett (United Kingdom/United States)
Awarded for contribution to the theory of superconductors and superfluids.
|David J. Gross (United States)
Hugh David Politzer (United States)
Frank Wilczek (United States)
Awarded for discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction.
|Roy J. Glauber (United States)
Awarded for contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence.
|John L. Hall (United States)
Theodor W. Hänsch (Germany)
Awarded for development of laser-based precision spectroscopy and the optical frequency comb technique.
|John C. Mather (United States)
George F. Smoot (United States)
Awarded for discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
|Albert Fert (France)
Peter Grünberg (Germany)
Awarded for discovery of giant magnetoresistance.
|Makoto Kobayashi (Japan)
Toshihide Maskawa (Japan)
Awarded for discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry that predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.
|Yoichiro Nambu (United States)
Awarded for discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics.
|Charles K. Kao (China/Hong Kong/US/UK)
Awarded for achievements regarding the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication.
|Willard S. Boyle (Canada/United States)
George E. Smith (United States)
Awarded for discovery of an imaging semiconductor circuit – CCD sensor.
|Andre Geim (Russia/Netherlands)
Konstantin Novoselov (Russia/United Kingdom)
Awarded for experiments concerning the two-dimensional material graphene.
|Saul Perlmutter (United States)
Brian P. Schmidt (Australia/United States)
Adam G. Riess (United States)
Awarded for discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.
|Serge Haroche (France)
David J. Wineland (United States)
Awarded for methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems.
|François Englert (Belgium)
Peter Higgs (United Kingdom)
Awarded for theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles.
|Akasaki Isamu (Japan)
Amano Hiroshi (Japan)
Shuji Nakamura (U.S.)
Awarded for their invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes, which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources.
|Takaaki Kajita (Japan)
Arthur B. McDonald (Canada)
Awarded for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass.