Did You Know?

The first mathematical symbols to be used were ciphers. They were introduced even before the written language was introduced.

Mathematics or math is considered to be the language of science, vital to understanding and explaining science behind natural occurrences and phenomena. It also happens to be one of the most dreaded subjects of most students the world over. Utter the word mathematics and even grown ups are known to shudder at the mere mention of it! We shall not delve into the reasons for this, but the variety of symbols used in equations also happen to add to the dread. Each branch of mathematics has its own special symbols that represent a particular concept. Thus, it is necessary for you to at least have a ready reference list of these conventions so that you don't mistake one for the other.

We, at Buzzle, have put forth a consolidated list of all the symbols used in various branches of mathematics. So, the next time you try to solve any math problem, you will at least know what the notations stand for!

We, at Buzzle, have put forth a consolidated list of all the symbols used in various branches of mathematics. So, the next time you try to solve any math problem, you will at least know what the notations stand for!

**Basic Symbols**

**Plus**

**Minus**

**Multiplication**

**Division**

**Equals**

**Not Equal**

**Greater than**

**Less than**

**Greater than or equal to**

**Less than or equal to**

**Plus - minus/Minus - plus**

**Modulo**

**Brackets**

**Parentheses**

**Exponent**

**Square root**

**Cube root**

**Fourth root**

**Nth root (radical)**

**Percent**

**Per-mille**

**Per-million**

**Per-billion**

**Per-trillion**

**Geometric Symbols**

**Angle**

**Measured angle**

**Spherical angle**

**Right angle**

**Degree**

**Arcminute**

**Arcsecond**

**Line**

**Line segment**

**Ray**

**Arc**

**Perpendicular**

**Parallel**

**Congruent**

**Similarity**

**Triangle**

**Distance**

**Pi**

**Radians**

**Grads**

**Algebra Symbols**

**X variable**

**Equivalence**

**It symbolizes equality by definition.**

**Proportional**

**Weak approximation**

**Approximation**

**Lemniscate/Infinity symbol**

**Factorial**

**Much less than**

**Much greater than**

**Floor brackets**

**Ceiling brackets**

**Absolute value**

**Function of**

**Function composition**

**Capital pi**

**Open interval**

**Closed interval**

**Delta**

**Discriminant**

**Sigma (Summation)**

**Double summation**

**E constant / Euler's number**

**Euler-Mascheroni constant**

**Golden ratio constant**

**Linear Algebra Symbols**

**Dot Product (Scalar)**

**Cross Product (Vector)**

**Brackets**

**Determinant**

**Norm**

**Inverse matrix**

**Transpose**

**Hermitian matrix**

**Matrix rank**

**Dimension**

**Probability & Statistics Symbols**

**Probability function**

**Probability density function**

**Intersection**

**Union**

**Conditional probability function**

**Cumulative distribution function**

**Population mean**

**Expectation value**

**Conditional expectation**

**Variance**

**Standard Deviation**

**Standard score**

**Median**

**Covariance**

**Correlation**

**Mode**

**Mid-range**

**Sample median**

**Lower / first quartile**

**Median / second quartile**

**Upper / third quartile**

**Sample mean**

**Sample variance**

**Sample standard deviation**

**Bernoulli distribution**

**Distribution of x**

**Normal (Gaussian) distribution**

**Uniform distribution**

**Exponential distribution**

**Gamma distribution**

**Chi-squared distribution**

**F distribution**

**Binomial distribution**

**Poisson distribution**

**Geometric distribution**

**Hyper Geometric Distribution**

**Combinatorics**

**Permutation**

**Combination**

**Set Theory**

**Set**

**Intersection**

**Union**

**Subset**

**Proper subset**

**Not Subset**

**Superset**

**Proper Superset**

**Equality**

**Complement**

**Relative complement**

**Symmetric difference**

**Element of**

**Not element of**

**Ordered pair**

**Cartesian product**

**Aleph-null**

**Aleph-one**

**Empty set**

**Universal set**

**Natural/whole numbers set**

**Integer numbers set**

**Real numbers set**

**Complex numbers set**

**Cardinality**

**Logic Symbols**

**And**

**Or**

**Not - negation**

**Exclusive or (XOR)**

**Implies**

**Equivalent**

**There exists**

**There does not exists**

**Therefore**

**Because/since**

**For all**

**Calculus Symbols**

**Limit**

**Epsilon**

**Derivative**

**Second derivative**

**Nth Derivative**

**Time derivative**

**Partial Derivative**

**Integral**

**Double integral**

**Triple integral**

**Closed contour / line integral**

**Imaginary unit**

**Complex conjugate**

**Nabla / del**

**Vector**

**Unit vector**

**Convolution**

**Delta function**

**Laplace transform**

**Fourier transform**

**Greek Symbols**

**Alpha**

**Beta**

**Gamma**

**Delta**

**Epsilon**

**Zeta**

**Eta**

**Theta**

**Iota**

**Kappa**

**Lambda**

**Mu**

**Nu**

**Xi**

**Omicron**

**Pi**

**Rho**

**Sigma**

**Tau**

**Upsilon**

**Phi**

**Chi**

**Psi**

**Omega**