Landlocked countries include those sovereign states in the world that are surrounded completely by land―by other countries―usually with no coast at all. Here is an intriguing list of landlocked countries that never have witnessed the ‘sea resource’.
Did You Know?
Eritrea became independent in the year 1993, turning Ethiopia into a landlocked country.
Landlocked refers to being surrounded by land completely. A landlocked country is any sovereign state that is entirely confined on all sides by land, or even if there is a coast, it is along a closed sea. Closed seas do not allow any outflow of water, for instance into an ocean or a river; the Tarim Basin in China’s Xinjiang region, Caspian Sea between Europe and Asia, or the Aral Sea between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, are some examples.
Waters bodies are of high strategic significance in geopolitics. This has been so since centuries. Control over the high seas or international waters has been a major deciding factor in history. In fact, it is clearly evident from the fact why every nation-state strives to develop and maintain a strong and competitive navy in today’s world. Access to the sea is also a potential resource for the economy of a country. Nevertheless, being landlocked does not necessarily pose a disadvantage for all, as geography is only one of the many influential factors in a country’s economy. Much also depends on the political relations between two or more neighbors.
Largest Landlocked Countries by Area
Area: 2,724,900 square kilometers
Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan are neighbors to Kazakhstan. The Caspian Sea borders the country on its west. Looking at it, in a map, gives a feel as if Kazakhstan is trying to eat away the Caspian Sea.
Area: 1,566,000 square kilometers
Capital: Ulan Bator
To its north lies Russia, and China surrounds it on the other three sides.
Area: 1,284,000 square kilometers
Beginning from the north, Chad is surrounded by Libya, Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger.
Area: 1,267,000 square kilometers
Niger has Chad on its east, Mali on its west, Burkina Faso at the southeastern end, Benin and Nigeria to the south, and Algeria and Libya on the north side, as its neighbors.
Area: 1,240,192 square kilometers
Mali is landlocked by Mauritania on the west, Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Senegal on the south.
Area: 1,104,300 square kilometers
Capital: Addis Ababa
Ethiopia got landlocked entirely after Eritrea’s independence. It is surrounded by Djibouti, Somaliland, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan, and Sudan.
Area: 1,098,581 square kilometers
Bolivia is landlocked by Chile and Peru on the west, and with Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina as its neighbors on the eastern and southern fronts.
Area: 752,618 square kilometers
Surrounded by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola, Zambia is a landlocked country located in southern Africa.
Area: 652,864 square kilometers
Afghanistan is kept away from the Arabian Sea by Pakistan on its south. It shares its borders with Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China too.
Central African Republic
Area: 622,984 km square kilometers
Located at the heart of the African continent, it is landlocked by Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo on the western and eastern fronts. Other neighboring countries include Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, and Democratic Republic of the Congo.
List of Other Landlocked Countries
Here is a list of all other landlocked countries. Mentioned below the name of the country are those countries which surround it.
Spain and France.
Turkey, Georgia, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan.
Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein.
Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Iran.
Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia.
India and China.
South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.
Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, and Ivory Coast.
Rwanda, Tanzania, and Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Germany, Austria, Slovakia, and Poland.
Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Austria.
Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, and uncontested territory of Serbia.
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China.
Myanmar, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand.
It is an enclave, located within South Africa.
Switzerland and Austria.
Belgium, Germany, and France.
Republic of Macedonia
Kosovo, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania.
Zambia, Tanzania, and Mozambique.
Romania and Ukraine.
An independent, but unrecognized state within Azerbaijan, it is located between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur.
India and China.
Argentina, Brazil, and Bolivia.
Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
San Marino (microstate)
It is an enclave within Italy.
Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Montenegro.
Czech Republic, Austria, Poland, Ukraine, and Hungary.
It is a partially recognized state within Georgia, and bordering Russia.
Republic of the Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic.
Mozambique and South Africa.
Italy, France, Germany, Austria, and Liechtenstein.
Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and China.
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran.
Kenya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Tanzania.
It is a doubly landlocked country surrounded by the following landlocked countries: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
It is an enclave within the city of Rome, in Italy.
South Africa, Zambia, Botswana, and Mozambique.