Welding Tips and Techniques

ScienceStruck Staff Oct 30, 2018
Welding, an integral part of fabrication process consists of merging two or more metals by melting and subsequent cooling. One has to exercise proper safety norms while carrying it out. Here are some welding tips and techniques...
Welding is a technique used mostly in the fabrication process. The method involves metals, materials etc. The act of welding relates to merging of two particles in to one, by the melting and cooling processes. The heating in the welding can be done by a gas flame, electric arc, laser, electron beam, friction and ultra sound.
The actual procedure of welding can be carried out in open air, underwater and in space. But wherever it is done, welding remains to be more dangerous. Unless proper precautions are taken, the welding person may be exposed to burns, electric shock, deadly fumes and ultraviolet rays.

Types of Welding

There are different types of welding. The oldest method is forge welding, which is carried out by heating and hammering. This type was prevalent up to the end of 19th century, when arc welding, where the electric current is used for heating, was developed. This was followed by oxy fuel welding. In this method, fuel gases and oxygen are used for welding.
Next came resistance welding. Following the two world wars, several modern techniques came into existence. They are shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, flux cored arc welding and electro-slag welding. New methods of welding are laser beam welding, electron beam welding and Robot welding.

Tips to Consider

The technical tips depend upon the process or technique of welding.
Here are some safety tips:

1) As the welding process involves heating, all inflammable materials near the vicinity should be removed.
2) The welding person should wear a protective gear to avoid the injury the fire or the gas may cause to him.
3) A fire extinguisher, in an operating condition, should always be kept ready for any emergency.
4) The welding place should have proper ventilation to avoid the accumulation of toxic materials.
5) Parts other than those that are being welded should be removed and placed separately so that they are not affected by the heating process.
6) The operator of the machine that is operable either by current or by gas should have a thorough knowledge about how to weld. New or unauthorized people should not be allowed to operate the machines individually.
7) The welder may use woolen clothing rather than cotton materials as cotton will easily catch fire.
8) In the extremely dangerous cases of welding, the person doing the welding process should wear flameproof jackets or aprons to avoid fire.

Techniques to Consider

However, welding techniques depend upon the process of welding being selected, there are some common techniques which are discussed here. The first and foremost is the operating conditions of the welding. By this, we mean the parameters related to the welding current, voltage, the speed of arc travel and the wire electrode extension.
Since these four things can be varied over a long range, they are considered important adjustments in any welding process. At different types of welding activity their values should be recorded in order to reproduce the same performance.
Welding current is the measurement of power being used in the welding process for which a power source meter or a separate ammeter can be used.
Wire electrode extension is also called stick-out. It is the distance between the electrical contact tip and the end of the wire electrode. Welding voltage is the current voltage that sets the arc length. Arc travel speed is the linear rate at which the arc moves along the work piece. It is expressed in inches or meters per minute.
Welding quality is directly affected by the torch position, the way it is held with respect to the weld joint. There are two techniques, one is called backhand and the other one is called forehand. In the backhand method, the wire will feed opposite to the direction arc travel and in the forehand method it is in the same direction.
The arc travel directions and torch positioning are also very important to get complete penetration of the welded article. Weld penetration is described as the distance the fusion line extends below the surface of the welded material. The degree of penetration depends upon the current.