Forces of nature are always unpredictable and cause massive destruction on the surface of the earth. Volcanoes are one of such forces that has swallowed the life from the face of the earth. They have a tendency to explosively erupt and spread up to a large area. As the pressure of gases, ash and hot magma increases, it explodes through the crust of the earth into the form of volcano. Depending on their frequency of eruptions they are classified into extinct, dormant and active. These volcanoes are made of different features which can help judge the behavior of each volcano. Let's take a look at the way these volcanoes erupt and see their various types.
Fissure vents, shield volcanoes, lava domes, cryptodomes, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes, supervolcanoes, submarine volcanoes and mud volcanoes are some of the volcanic types, the names of which have been derived from their features. A shield volcano derives its name from its tendency to spread to a great extent. This volcano is made of only thin explosive fluid lava. At the time of its explosion, it shoots up at a height of 8 km and spreads in all directions. Due to the extremely fluid lava, the shield volcanic mountains are usually less steep. The exterior of the mountain has shallow slopes, which allows the hot fluid lava to spread in all directions. This volcano has a shallow bowl like structure called the summit caldera, through which it throws out the hot fluid. The hot lava that flows underneath the earth's crust, sometimes leaks out of the vents formed on the flanks. The Hawaiian islands, northern California and Oregon, are a home to many such volcanoes.
Some Well-known Volcanoes
▲ Mauna Loa
It is among the largest active volcanoes of Hawaii, which is known for covering the area of 18,000 cubic miles with just 120 feet high peak. Mauna Loa frequently occurred form 24th March to 15 April 1984, but caused less damage to the life around it. However, its eruptions dated back in the 50s destroyed many villages. The lava that flows under, is extremely fluid and covers the shallow slopes of the mountain. The city of Hilo spreads over the dried lava of Mauna Loa. The existence of this volcano dates back to some 700,000 years and since then been a part of the Hawaiian islands.
▲ Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea is also one of the volcanic mountain of the Hawaiian islands, which is located near the Mauna Loa volcanic mountain. Due to its less eruptions, it is considered as one of the dormant volcanoes. This volcano rises up to 30,000 ft above sea level. Mauna Kea is one of the oldest mountains that erupted 1,000,000 years ago and continued to be active for a few years.
Kilauea is one of the most active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands and is known for its 34 eruptions since 1952. As per the USGS, Kilauea is among the most dangerous volcanoes which has destroyed the entire settlement in the Kalapana area. Magma of this volcano flows 60 km deep under the earth's surface.
Hualalai is a dormant volcano, located on the Hawaiian Islands. It stands 8,271 feet tall above the sea level and has come to exist some 300,000 years ago. It is rated as the third most dangerous volcano. The last eruption of Hualalai was witnessed during the 1929 Swarm earthquake. The tremors of this earthquake were felt till Honolulu. The volcano has showed the signs of eruptions after every 200 to 300 years.
These volcanoes are considered to be the most destructive of all. These volcanoes are present in different parts of the world and mainly occur during the diverging and converging movement of tectonic plates. The movement of tectonic plates not only results volcanoes but also give rise to earthquakes.