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Science Activities for Preschoolers

Science Activities for Preschoolers

There are many science activities for preschoolers, which are included in their academics. This ScienceStruck article provides you with some ideas about such activities that can benefit your kids during their preschool days.
Aparna Jadhav
"Science is the one human activity that is truly progressive. The body of positive knowledge is transmitted from generation to generation."
― Edwin Powell Hubble, An Astronomer
It is rightly said that there's no age for education, and this applies to humans, right from a very young age. Preschoolers or toddlers from the age group of 2 to 5 years are in a very crucial period. This is the best time when they are most inquisitive and curious about many things. They want to know everything that is happening around them like what are the different types of colors, tastes, smells, animals, plants, etc. Hence, with the help of simple projects and activities, we can start to make your kids more intelligent right since their first few years.
Interesting and Fun-filled Science Activities
In science, the basic fields are:
  • Biology
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
You wouldn't expect a preschooler to know what these are, but when you classify the relevant activities for them, it is important to show them the difference.
Biology literally means the study of life, which includes both plants and animals. When you have to teach preschoolers about this subject, you can tell them simple steps to recognize a plant or an animal; i.e., through appearance, colors, habits, the type of food they eat, etc. One of the best activities is to make charts showing the basic types of plants and animals.
Vegetable Charts
Preschool Activity - Identifying Vegetables
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✦ Buy some chart papers, and draw simple outlines and few details of plants on it.
✦ You can also paint the sketches by using minimal colors so that small kids do not find it difficult in distinguishing between the various examples.
✦ Do not forget to draw each and every part of the plant, even though they are just simple sketches. The reason for this being that kids of a preschool age have a sharp memory and can remember activities involving pictures in a quick manner.
Example of Plant Growth
This basic idea can be explained with the help of your hand-drawn or home-painted charts. Make a chart by drawing simple tree diagrams in a succession one after the another, which shows the various stages of growth of a tree. Moreover, your kid will also understand the various parts of a plant, along with their growing stages. You can explain it in the following manner:
  1.  The seed is planted in the soil and is provided with water.
  2.  It forms a shoot that grows steadily and forms the stem.
  3. Branches and leaves sprout from the trees that also grow in size.
  4. As the tree grows, the length of the roots also increases beneath the ground surface.
  5. Flowers are produced during specific times, which further form the fruits.
  6. Plant seeds are present inside the fruits, which can again be planted in the soil.
Other Activities
Examples of simple plants to be drawn on the charts are lily, rose, hibiscus, ferns, spruce, fir, etc.
Animal Charts
Preschool Activity - Identifying Animals
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✦ Making representations of animals is much more difficult than drawing plants, as there is a lot of variety in the animal kingdom. To make things simpler, list down some animals according to their category, i.e., insects, birds, mammals, etc.
✦ Choose an example from each category, and draw them on chart papers.
✦ Name each animal appropriately, and use minimum colors to enhance your charts.
✦ Explain to the preschooler kids the simple characteristics of each animal.
Choose simple animals like a monkey, lion, grasshopper, ant, eagle, owl, etc., for the above-mentioned categories. You can also use ready-made stencils for this job, as drawing outlines especially of insects and birds are quite difficult. For a single animal, you can draw the main activities that it does in a day. For this to be represented on a chart, you should decide on the type and number of activities to be shown.

1. Let's say, the daily life of a lion is chosen. Draw six outlines of a lioness that is performing varying actions like eating, drinking water from a pond, preying on an animal, protecting the cubs, roaring, running or sprinting, etc.
2. Draw simple sketches of these ideas on the chart paper, and patiently explain all the relevant activities to the kids.
Other Activities
Some activities that consist of making crafts of plants and animals can also be undertaken. Few such examples are:
  • Butterfly
  • Frog
  • Snail
  • Bat
  • Birds
  • Monkey
  • Tiger
  • Rabbit
  • Flowers
  • Fruit trees
These easy craft ideas can be made out of paper or cardboard. Numerous steps and origami diagrams are available on the Internet, and also in books related to these examples. It is a fun activity, as all these plants and animals have various shapes, sizes, and colors; hence, kids find it very exciting to make them. You can also take your kid to a zoo or a garden to make them aware of all these creatures and plants that exist around them, and they will be happy to learn about all these living beings.
Kids love to ask questions about nature and its components. Thus, if you want to teach them something about physics, you can perform various experiments in the form of a magic show to excite them a little bit.
Do I Float or Sink?
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A very simple experiment can be performed to make preschooler kids understand one of the most basic examples in physics―the motion of sound between two locations with the help of a medium.
  1. This experiment requires two plastic cans, a long string of about 10 meters in length, and a scissor.
  2. With the help of the scissors, cut a hole in each of the plastic cans on their bottom sides.
  3. Spread out the entire length of the string, and tie one end each to both these holes. Ensure that they are tightly knotted as the string has to be kept under tension.
  4. Now, tell your kid to place the open end of one can on his/her ear, and stand a few meters away. You should take the other can, hold it near your mouth, and stand in the opposite direction to that of the kid, stretching the string in the middle section.
  5. Now, whisper something in the can, and see your kid smile in wonder as he hears the whisper even if he is standing far from you.
This experiment works on a simple principle that sound waves require a medium to travel, in this case the string. Thus, in absence of any other obstacle, sound waves reach the other end of the string regardless of the distance between both persons. To make it more interesting, keep on talking alternatively, i.e., one listens while the other talks.
Other Activities
  • Musical bottles
  • Air-related experiments using balloons
  • Experiments of static electricity
  • Heavy and lightweight objects
  • Tissue paper parachute
  • Making a rainbow
Another essential part of science is the subject of chemistry. A knowledge about this subject is very crucial in our day-to-day lives, including household activities like cooking and washing clothes. If taught from a young age, preschooler kids will master this subject when they grow up, if they understand the basics in very simple manners by undertaking easy experiments. One such basic aspect of chemistry is known as the states of matter of various compounds. The change in these states regarding water has been briefly explained below:
Who am I? Solid, Liquid or Gas?
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Example: Three States of Water
Water (H2O) exists primarily in there states: solid, liquid, and gaseous states, and is the most important chemical compound present on our planet. It is present in the form of ice/snow (solid), water (liquid), and water vapor (gas). The transition between these states is marked by changes in temperature as well as the pressure associated with the compound. Explain to your preschool kid the various states of matter with the help of the following experiment.
  1. Take some ice cubes in a pan, and keep a thermometer in contact with them.
  2. On a stove, slowly heat the cubes, and watch the change in temperature simultaneously with the transformation to water.
  3. The ice cubes initially will show a temperature of 0°C before heating. In the temperature range between 0 to 100°C, H2O will be present in a liquid state.
  4. At about 100°C, water starts to boil. Ask your kid to see the steam that arises from the pan. This is also known as water vapor and is the gaseous state of H2O.
  5. Briefly explain to your kid about temperature changes, and how each substance is characterized by different states of matter.
Other Activities
You can carry out the following ideas and experiments to make your preschoolers understand the various types of chemical reactions that are taking place around them.

  • Density of air and water (using eggs)
  • Why do liquids mix?
  • Senses like hearing, feel, eyesight
  • Popcorn making
  • Vinegar volcanic eruptions
  • Chemical change experiments
Vegetable Chart
Vegetable Chart
Animal Chart
Set Of Cute Animals
Physics Chart
Physics Chart
Chemistry Chart
Chemistry Chart
Answers chart
There are many more such activities for your kids, which can be demonstrated to them at home or at school. This will help them develop a sharp memory, and they will be good at observing the daily scientific changes that occur around them. Make your kids smarter and more intelligent, as they will definitely use what they learn when they grow up.