An essential part of chemistry lab work is learning to make solutions of various kinds. Chemical substances are used without dilution, very rarely. That necessitates a knowledge of creating solutions of specific concentration, which are measured in terms of their normality or molarity. Ergo, one needs to have a good grasp of what impact the saturation level of the solution has, on the outcome of a chemical reaction.
A solution is any homogeneous mixture of solids, gases, or liquids in a liquid or a gas. The component of the solution, which is larger in quantity is known as the solvent, while other components are known as solutes.
The saturation level of any solution is decided by the amount of solute that can be completely dissolved in it, without disturbing its homogeneous nature. In simple words, it decides how much of a solute can be accumulated into the solvent through dissolution, without any of it precipitating. A saturated solution is one in which no more solute may dissolve. It has simply no more room to dissolve any more of it.
Till the saturation point is reached, it is an unsaturated solution. Examples are a solution of potassium iodide or potassium chloride, which cannot dissolve any more of either salts. It is a fact of observation, that polar solvents tend to easily dissolve polar solutes and organic solvents are better at dissolving organic compounds.
The saturation point of any solution depends on the nature of the chemical species that are a part of it. It has also been observed, that the same quantity of solvent will dissolve varying amounts of solute, at different temperatures. At high temperatures, polar solvents are known to dissolve more amount of solutes.
This is because of the higher energy supplied in the form of heat, which increases the vibration energy of the molecules, creating more space for dissolution. A saturated solution is created when one needs a crystallized culture of the solute. It is created and then left to dry, as it precipitates crystals after the solvent evaporates.
How Do You Make it?
It's quite simple. You go on adding more and more solute in a solvent and keep stirring until no more solute can actually dissolve further. Take a glass of water and a container full of common salt. Start adding salt to the glass of water and keep stirring.
As you stir, the salt will dissolve in water until you get a homogeneous solution and the salt crystals are no longer distinguishable. Keep adding salt and stir till you can dissolve no more and the excess salt stops dissolving. When that point is reached, you have a saturated solution. Thus, a glass of saline water, in which you can add no more salt, is an excellent example.
To conclude, this type of solution won't let you dissolve any more solute, as it has no more vacancy within its intermolecular spaces to accommodate more. As discussed before, the ability of a solution to dissolve any solute is a function of temperature and inherent composition of the solute, as well as the solvent. There is no way that one can learn about the saturation point of a solution, without actually studying the dissolution of the solute through an experiment.