# Famous Black Mathematicians Whom the World Can't Thank Enough

Time has witnessed many well-known mathematicians who have come up with interesting new discoveries in the field of mathematics. To know about some of the famous African-American mathematicians, read this ScienceStruck article.

ScienceStruck Staff

Last Updated: Mar 26, 2018

The Firsts

Elbert Frank Cox was the world's first African-American to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics. Euphemia Haynes was the first African-American woman mathematician to achieve this.

Benjamin Banneker (November 9, 1731 - October 9, 1806)

*Josef Levi*. Seeing his keen interest in the watch, Levi presented it to Banneker. Banneker started examining the watch and its working. He designed huge replicas of the watch by calculating the gear assemblies and made a huge striking clock - the first one to be made completely in America. This invention of Benjamin Banneker served as an accurate timepiece and he earned recognition as a clockmaker. Banneker contributed to the field of astronomy, by devising calculations to predict solar and lunar eclipses.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He is famous for his puzzles in mathematics and trigonometry. His puzzle, 'Trigonometry' demonstrates his expertise in logarithms. People still wonder which logarithmic table he might have used.

✦ He was instrumental in devising a method of finding the lengths of the sides of an equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle, whose diameter is known.

✦ He was instrumental in devising a method of finding the lengths of the sides of an equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle, whose diameter is known.

Dudley Weldon Woodard (October 3, 1881 - July 1, 1965)

*Dr. W.W.S. Claytor*and

*Dr. Marjorie Lee Browne*were his students.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He was the second African-American to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics. He obtained the degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1928.

✦ He was the first African-American mathematician whose research papers were published in an internationally accredited mathematics journal. His thesis was

✦ During his tenure at Howard University, Dr. Dudley made a significant contribution towards the development of mathematical studies and research. He was the one responsible for the establishment of the M.S. Degree program in mathematics at Howard. Also, he was the one who established a mathematics library at Howard. He also pioneered the sponsorship and organization of various scholarly seminars for the students of mathematics at Howard.

✦ He was the first African-American mathematician whose research papers were published in an internationally accredited mathematics journal. His thesis was

*On two dimensional analysis situs with special reference to the Jordan curve theorem*, which was published in 1929.✦ During his tenure at Howard University, Dr. Dudley made a significant contribution towards the development of mathematical studies and research. He was the one responsible for the establishment of the M.S. Degree program in mathematics at Howard. Also, he was the one who established a mathematics library at Howard. He also pioneered the sponsorship and organization of various scholarly seminars for the students of mathematics at Howard.

Kelly Miller (July 18, 1863 - December 29, 1939)

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He was awarded a scholarship and was admitted to Howard University. He enrolled in the Preparatory Department which emphasized subjects including Latin, Greek, and Mathematics. The genius in him completed the normal three-year curriculum in just two years.

✦ He was the first student from an African-American descent to be admitted to Johns Hopkins University. He started his graduate studies in mathematics, physics, and astronomy.

✦ He was the Vice-President of the American Negro Academy of Experimental Geometry.

✦ He was the first student from an African-American descent to be admitted to Johns Hopkins University. He started his graduate studies in mathematics, physics, and astronomy.

✦ He was the Vice-President of the American Negro Academy of Experimental Geometry.

Elbert Frank Cox (December 5, 1895-November 28, 1969)

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He was the first African-American not only in the United States, but also in the world to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics. He received his doctorate from Cornell University in 1925.

✦ It is said that he became an inspiration to other mathematics students, especially those that came from an African-American descent. While he taught in Howard, he taught the maximum number of students enrolled for a Master's degree. His students also performed better than any other professor at the time.

✦ He specialized in differential equations, interpolation theory, and difference equations. He was the head of the department of mathematics in Howard University, and was also an active member of the American Mathematical Society, among the other educational societies.

✦ In the honor of this famous mathematician, the National Association of Mathematicians, every year, at their national meeting delivers the

✦ It is said that he became an inspiration to other mathematics students, especially those that came from an African-American descent. While he taught in Howard, he taught the maximum number of students enrolled for a Master's degree. His students also performed better than any other professor at the time.

✦ He specialized in differential equations, interpolation theory, and difference equations. He was the head of the department of mathematics in Howard University, and was also an active member of the American Mathematical Society, among the other educational societies.

✦ In the honor of this famous mathematician, the National Association of Mathematicians, every year, at their national meeting delivers the

*Cox-Talbot Address*. A scholarship fund named*The Elbert F. Cox Scholarship Fund*was also created to aid black students to pursue their studies.David Blackwell (April 24, 1919 - July 8, 2010)

*Rosenwald Postdoctoral Fellow*so that he could pursue his research in the

*Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton*. However, because of the opposition faced within the University regarding his race, Blackwell realized the fact that an African-American would be allowed to teach only in African-American colleges, so, he started applying in such institutes. He served in the Southern University and then at the Clark College in Atlanta. In 1946, he became an associate professor in the Howard University. It was during this time that he became interested in the field, theory of games. He also wrote a book with Abe Girshek on this topic in 1954, titled

*Theory of Games and Statistical Decisions*. In 1955, he became a professor of statistics at UC, Berkeley. He is among some of the most noted mathematicians the world has seen.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He was the first African-American to make it to the National Academy of Sciences.

✦ The famous Rao-Blackwell Theorem that deals with transformation of estimators in statistics has been named after this genius.

✦ He had a particular interest in the "duelist game", and he became a notable expert in this area during the Cold War, as this game had a tremendous significance on the nuclear strategies.

✦ In recognition of his work on Operations Research, he was awarded the

✦ The famous Rao-Blackwell Theorem that deals with transformation of estimators in statistics has been named after this genius.

✦ He had a particular interest in the "duelist game", and he became a notable expert in this area during the Cold War, as this game had a tremendous significance on the nuclear strategies.

✦ In recognition of his work on Operations Research, he was awarded the

*John von Neumann*prize. He also contributed to the field of Statistical Theory, and for this, had won the*R.A. Fisher*prize.William Waldron Schieffelin Claytor (January 4, 1908 - 1967)

*J.R. Kline*. Kline also recommended Claytor's name to Dr. Wilder, who was attracting a group of qualified and experienced topologists. After learning about Claytor's abilities in the subject, he was one of the members of the Michigan topologists group.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He was the third African-American to receive a Ph.D., after his teachers

✦ Apart from dissertation, he was the first African-American to publish his mathematical research. In 1934, his embedding theorem was published. His published work was an advancement of the theory introduced by a Polish mathematician Casimir Kuratowski on certain figures. When Claytor researched and incorporated this theory into an effective whole, mathematicians started addressing these figures as "Claytor curves".

✦ In his honor, the National Association of Mathematicians, in 1980, established a lecture series called the

*Elbert Cox*and*Dudley Woodard*. His dissertation was on*Topological Immersion of Peanian Continua in a Spherical Surface*.✦ Apart from dissertation, he was the first African-American to publish his mathematical research. In 1934, his embedding theorem was published. His published work was an advancement of the theory introduced by a Polish mathematician Casimir Kuratowski on certain figures. When Claytor researched and incorporated this theory into an effective whole, mathematicians started addressing these figures as "Claytor curves".

✦ In his honor, the National Association of Mathematicians, in 1980, established a lecture series called the

*Claytor Lecture*.J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr. (November 27, 1923 - May 1, 2011)

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He is responsible for the development of mathematical models through which the calculation of the amount of absorbed gamma radiation in a material, can be easily calculated. This development has helped in the research conducted in the projects associated with nuclear science and space.

✦ Apart from mathematics, he was also responsible for the discovery of various phenomena in the area of physics. The

✦ He published several papers on a wide range of subjects that included linear differential equations, integrals, differential geometry as also optics and nuclear engineering. Howard University appointed him as Distinguished Professor of Applied Mathematical Physics in 1970. He was also a joint owner of an organization which developed and designed nuclear reactors for electrical power generation.

✦ Apart from mathematics, he was also responsible for the discovery of various phenomena in the area of physics. The

*Wilkins affect*,*Wilkins spectra*, and the*Wigner-Wilkins*are some examples of the thermal neutrons phenomena that were named after him.✦ He published several papers on a wide range of subjects that included linear differential equations, integrals, differential geometry as also optics and nuclear engineering. Howard University appointed him as Distinguished Professor of Applied Mathematical Physics in 1970. He was also a joint owner of an organization which developed and designed nuclear reactors for electrical power generation.

Euphemia Lofton Haynes (September 11, 1890 - 25 July, 1980)

*first*woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ She was the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics in the year 1943 from The Catholic University in Washington D.C. Her dissertation was on the topic

✦ She was a mathematics teacher in various public schools in Washington D.C., and also served as a mathematics professor in colleges. She established the mathematics department in the

✦ During her 47-year-long career in the field of education, she worked towards the desegregation of the school system, as the practice of racial segregation was pretty evident at the time. After her death, she left an amount of $700,000 to The Catholic University of America, which was used to establish an endowed chair and fund for student loan in the education department. She was also honored with the medal

*The Determination of Sets of Independent Conditions Characterizing Certain Special Cases of Symmetric Correspondences*.✦ She was a mathematics teacher in various public schools in Washington D.C., and also served as a mathematics professor in colleges. She established the mathematics department in the

*Miner Teachers College*. She was also the first woman to become the president of the Washington, D.C. Board of Education.✦ During her 47-year-long career in the field of education, she worked towards the desegregation of the school system, as the practice of racial segregation was pretty evident at the time. After her death, she left an amount of $700,000 to The Catholic University of America, which was used to establish an endowed chair and fund for student loan in the education department. She was also honored with the medal

*Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice*from Pope John XXIII in the year 1959.Evelyn Boyd Granville (May 1, 1924 - )

*NASA*,

*IBM*, and

*North American Aviation*. She graduated from Dunbar High School and entered Smith College in 1941 to continue her further studies, graduating

*summa cum laude*in 1945 with mathematics honors. Later she joined the Yale University, from where she completed her Ph.D. becoming one of the pioneer African-American women in the world to earn a doctorate. In her career as an educator, she worked towards the development of the education system, believing that if she has been fortunate to be educated enough, why not help the others with the same.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ She is the second African-American woman to receive her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in the year 1949. Her dissertation was on the topic

✦ She also co-authored a book titled

✦ She was an inspiring mentor who became the role model for her students including

✦ She was bestowed with various awards and recognition from various educational bodies. She was given an honorary doctorate by Smith College in the year 1989, making her the first African-American woman to be honored in this manner by an American institution. Lincoln University also gave her an honorary degree. She is also among the first three African-American women to be honored by the

*On Laguerre Series in the Complex Domain*.✦ She also co-authored a book titled

*Theory and Application of Mathematics for Teachers*which was published in 1975. This book was adopted by more than 50 colleges in the United States of America.✦ She was an inspiring mentor who became the role model for her students including

*Vivienne Malone Meyers*and*Etta Zuber Falconer*, who also followed her footsteps and earned a Ph.D. in mathematics.✦ She was bestowed with various awards and recognition from various educational bodies. She was given an honorary doctorate by Smith College in the year 1989, making her the first African-American woman to be honored in this manner by an American institution. Lincoln University also gave her an honorary degree. She is also among the first three African-American women to be honored by the

*National Academy of Science*in the year 1999.Marjorie Lee Browne (September 9, 1914 - October 19, 1979)

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ She was the third African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics. Her dissertation was on

✦ She was the first one to realize the importance of computers in the advancement of her field. In 1969, she received a grant of $60,000 from IBM and pioneered the establishment of electronic digital computer centers in the NCCU, which was considered to be a minority university back then.

✦ She was also responsible for the establishment of the first Undergraduate Research Participation Program at NCCU, which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Being aware of the difficulties faced by minorities in the educational field, Dr. Browne made sure that she strengthened and increased the number of African-Americans in the field of mathematical sciences, especially females. The proof of her dedication is the fact that 9 of her students earned a Ph.D. in mathematics, sciences, or a related field.

✦ She was also one of the first few African-American women who were a part of the advisory panel of the National Science Foundation.

✦ She received various honors for her contribution to the field of mathematics. She was also active in granting scholarships and professional activities. She was the member of some of the prestigious organizations such as

*Studies of One Parameter Subgroups of Certain Topological and Matrix Groups*.✦ She was the first one to realize the importance of computers in the advancement of her field. In 1969, she received a grant of $60,000 from IBM and pioneered the establishment of electronic digital computer centers in the NCCU, which was considered to be a minority university back then.

✦ She was also responsible for the establishment of the first Undergraduate Research Participation Program at NCCU, which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Being aware of the difficulties faced by minorities in the educational field, Dr. Browne made sure that she strengthened and increased the number of African-Americans in the field of mathematical sciences, especially females. The proof of her dedication is the fact that 9 of her students earned a Ph.D. in mathematics, sciences, or a related field.

✦ She was also one of the first few African-American women who were a part of the advisory panel of the National Science Foundation.

✦ She received various honors for her contribution to the field of mathematics. She was also active in granting scholarships and professional activities. She was the member of some of the prestigious organizations such as

*Mathematical Association of America (MAA)*and the*American Mathematical Society (AMS)*.Albert Turner Bharucha-Reid (November 13, 1927 - February 26, 1985)

*Rodab Phiroze Bharucha*. This mathematics genius published his first paper on mathematical biology at the tender age of 18. In 1949, he completed his BS from the Iowa State University, in mathematics and biology. Although, he pursued his studies at the University of Chicago, he never completed his Ph.D. because he considered it to be a waste of time. In spite of this, he held some important positions in the field which varied from being a research assistant to instructor to assistant professor to associate professor to the Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences at Wayne State University! He wrote various papers and books that were a major contribution, not only in the field of mathematics, but also in areas like physics, biology, economics, and engineering.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ Within the years 1951-1996, he published over 70 papers, and was also the author of many books. His first book was published in 1960, and over 6 books were published by him in subjects including algebra, mathematical biology, topology, analysis, and statistics.

✦ His interests lay in areas of Mathematical Biology, Probability, and Statistics. During his career, he was the adviser of at least 13 students pursuing their Ph.D. The National Association of Mathematicians has also named a lecture series in his honor.

✦ His interests lay in areas of Mathematical Biology, Probability, and Statistics. During his career, he was the adviser of at least 13 students pursuing their Ph.D. The National Association of Mathematicians has also named a lecture series in his honor.

Clarence Francis Stephens (July 24, 1917 - )

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He is the ninth African-American to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics, in 1943. He earned his degree from the University of Michigan with a dissertation on nonlinear difference equations.

✦ He is known for his encouragement and contribution towards the formulation of one of the most successful undergraduate mathematics degree programs in the country, while he was at the State University of New York (SUNY) Potsdam. This program was counted among the top producers of majors in mathematics in the United States of America. Dr. Stephens' teaching model known as the

✦ Dr. Stephens also made an inspiring record in the country. It was only under his guidance that Morgan State University became the very first institution in America to have three African-American students in the same graduating class (class of 1964), who later on received a Ph.D. in mathematics. These were

✦ He has received various honors for his excellent contribution in the development and teaching of mathematics. The

✦ He is known for his encouragement and contribution towards the formulation of one of the most successful undergraduate mathematics degree programs in the country, while he was at the State University of New York (SUNY) Potsdam. This program was counted among the top producers of majors in mathematics in the United States of America. Dr. Stephens' teaching model known as the

*Morgan-Potsdam Model*was also adopted by various mathematics departments throughout the United States. Dr. Stephens also received the Mathematical Association of America Gung-Hu Award for this model.✦ Dr. Stephens also made an inspiring record in the country. It was only under his guidance that Morgan State University became the very first institution in America to have three African-American students in the same graduating class (class of 1964), who later on received a Ph.D. in mathematics. These were

*Dr. Arthur Grainger*,*Dr. Earl Barnes*, and*Dr. Scott Williams*.✦ He has received various honors for his excellent contribution in the development and teaching of mathematics. The

*SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching*was given to him in the year 1976-77. Also, for his distinguished service to Education, he was honored twice, once in 1962 by Governor J. Millard Tawes of Maryland, and in 1987 by Governor Mario Cuomo of New York.Charles Lewis Reason (July 21, 1818 - August 16, 1893)

*Freedom*was published in 1849, in Alexander Crummell's biography of Clarkson.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He is also the co-founder of the

✦ In 1849, he became the first African-American to be appointed as a professor in the New York Central College, McGrawville, which is a predominantly white college in the United States.

✦ In 1852, he was appointed as the principal of the Quaker Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia (which was later named Cheyney University). It is said that it was Reason's leadership that within his tenure of 4 years, he increased the enrollment from 6 students in 1852, to a 118 in the year 1855.

*Society for the Promotion of Education among Colored Children*, in 1947. This was a black organization established to promote education among "colored" children who had to face racial discrimination elsewhere. Under the leadership of Dr. Reason, this school became -- as quoted by Frederick Douglass in the*North Star*of May 11, 1849 -- "a rigorous refutation of the calumnies of John C. Calhoun about the potentials of free blacks".✦ In 1849, he became the first African-American to be appointed as a professor in the New York Central College, McGrawville, which is a predominantly white college in the United States.

✦ In 1852, he was appointed as the principal of the Quaker Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia (which was later named Cheyney University). It is said that it was Reason's leadership that within his tenure of 4 years, he increased the enrollment from 6 students in 1852, to a 118 in the year 1855.

William A. Massey (1956 - )

*Non-Stationary Queues*. He won various awards and scholarships as a student. As soon as he completed his doctorate, he joined the Mathematical Sciences Research Center at Bell Laboratories. After a lucrative career at Bell Labs, he accepted the position of Edwin S. Wilsey Professor of Operations Research and Financial Engineering at Princeton, and has been working there since 2001.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He is the co-founder of the

✦ His expertise on the

✦ He is the first African-American Princeton undergraduate to return to the institution as a faculty member. In 2012, he also became a fellow of the

✦ He was given the National Association of Mathematicians Distinguished Service Award in 1996, and was invited to give the William W. S. Claytor Lecture. He has been honored with the

*Conference for African American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS)*, and takes the onus of co-organizing all of CAARMS conferences. He has also founded the*Council for African American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences*. He also encouraged several minority students to work with him as summer employees at Bell Labs. He has also published papers that are co-authored with these students.✦ His expertise on the

*Queueing Theory*and his other research interests --*Applied Probability*,*Stochastic Processes*,*Performance Modelling of Telecommunication System*, and*Special Functions*-- has made him a well-known figure in the field of mathematics.✦ He is the first African-American Princeton undergraduate to return to the institution as a faculty member. In 2012, he also became a fellow of the

*American Mathematical Society*.✦ He was given the National Association of Mathematicians Distinguished Service Award in 1996, and was invited to give the William W. S. Claytor Lecture. He has been honored with the

*Blackwell-Tapia Prize*of the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications in 2006, for an "outstanding record of achievement in mathematical research and his mentioning of minorities and women in the field of mathematics."Charles Bernard Bell, Jr. (August 20, 1928 - October 26, 2010)

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He was the first African-American who earned both his masters and doctorate from the Notre Dame University. Also, he was the second African-American to be appointed as a professor at the San Diego State University.

✦ He was an expert in areas including nonparametric statistics, stochastic processes and related problems and applications, biostatistics and signal detection. In his 41-year-long prolific career, he published approximately 40 publications. He devoted his life towards teaching mathematics and statistics, and researching in topics he enjoyed exploring.

✦ He loved traveling, and had worked in various countries in his lifetime. He also worked with African mathematicians in Marsabit, Kenya, in 1968. The following year he worked towards the development of mathematics courses for the teachers in Nigeria. He also conducted a workshop at Tulane, in the year 1975, to help black undergraduates.

✦ He has received various awards and honors for his contribution in the field of mathematics. Some of them include - elected a fellow in the American Statistics Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics.

✦ He was an expert in areas including nonparametric statistics, stochastic processes and related problems and applications, biostatistics and signal detection. In his 41-year-long prolific career, he published approximately 40 publications. He devoted his life towards teaching mathematics and statistics, and researching in topics he enjoyed exploring.

✦ He loved traveling, and had worked in various countries in his lifetime. He also worked with African mathematicians in Marsabit, Kenya, in 1968. The following year he worked towards the development of mathematics courses for the teachers in Nigeria. He also conducted a workshop at Tulane, in the year 1975, to help black undergraduates.

✦ He has received various awards and honors for his contribution in the field of mathematics. Some of them include - elected a fellow in the American Statistics Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics.

Etta Zuber Falconer (November 21, 1933 - September 19, 2002)

*summa cum laude*, majoring in mathematics. She completed her Master's degree in Science from the University of Wisconsin, however, due to what she describes as a "culture shock", she didn't pursue her doctorate in Wisconsin and returned to Mississippi where she entered the field of teaching. She earned her Ph.D. degree in mathematics from the Emory University. All her life she worked towards the development of the African-American women who wished to excel in the field of mathematics. She initiated various programs during her long career at the Spelman College, and also received various honors for her work.

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ She was the eleventh African-American woman to have earned a doctorate in mathematics. She received her degree in 1969 at the Emory University. Her dissertation was on

✦ While she was at the Spelman College, she directed various unique programs, which included the

✦ She has won various awards in recognition of her work, including the

*Abstract Algebra*.✦ While she was at the Spelman College, she directed various unique programs, which included the

*NASA Women in Science and Engineering Scholars*program . She also co-founded the*National Association of Mathematicians*, an organization that works towards the welfare of African-American students and mathematicians.✦ She has won various awards in recognition of her work, including the

*Spelman College Presidential Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching*in 1994; the*Louise Hay Award*for her outstanding achievements in mathematics education, given by the Association for Women in Mathematics in the year 1995; the*Lifetime Mentor Award*in 2001, given by the*American Association for Advancement in Science*, to name a few.Augustin Banyaga (March 31, 1947 - )

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ His contributions mainly lie in the subjects including Contact Geometry, Symplectic, and Topology. His research in the past focused on the structure of classical diffeomorphism groups. His later research focused on

✦ He is the editor of the African Journal of Mathematics and Afrika Matematica, which is the journal of the African Mathematical Union. He has supervised 7 Ph.D. students during their dissertation.

*Locally Conformal Symplectic Geometry*and*Morse-Bott-Floer Homology*.✦ He is the editor of the African Journal of Mathematics and Afrika Matematica, which is the journal of the African Mathematical Union. He has supervised 7 Ph.D. students during their dissertation.

Lee Vernon Stiff (1949 - )

Achievements in the Field of Mathematics

✦ He has received various awards and honors for his contribution in mathematics education, including -

✦ He has authored and co-authored for more than 100 publications. These also consist of textbooks for middle grades and high school mathematics, chapter books, and a few professional books. He is also on the Editorial Boards of the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education and Mathematics Teacher, among the many other esteemed bodies in the field.

✦ As a researcher, he focuses on the formulation of highly effective teaching strategies, the development of mathematics education for African-American children, using technology towards teaching mathematics, and problem solving.

✦ He has also been among the board of directors of prestigious organizations like the Benjamin Banneker Association, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and the North Carolina Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCCTM). He has also served as the president of NCTM in the past.

*The W.W. Rankin Memorial Award for Excellence in Mathematics Education*and the*Reginald V. Blackmon Award for Excellence in Teaching*.✦ He has authored and co-authored for more than 100 publications. These also consist of textbooks for middle grades and high school mathematics, chapter books, and a few professional books. He is also on the Editorial Boards of the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education and Mathematics Teacher, among the many other esteemed bodies in the field.

✦ As a researcher, he focuses on the formulation of highly effective teaching strategies, the development of mathematics education for African-American children, using technology towards teaching mathematics, and problem solving.

✦ He has also been among the board of directors of prestigious organizations like the Benjamin Banneker Association, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and the North Carolina Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCCTM). He has also served as the president of NCTM in the past.