Branches of Science

Branches of Science

Science is widely applied in every aspect of life. It is the organized body of knowledge that is achieved by a thorough research. There are a number of branches in science, which we will discuss in this article.
The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them. --- William Lawrence Bragg

Science is referred to as a system of objective knowledge obtained through deep research. It is applied in every field and aspect of life. With the help of scientific inventions and techniques, we have got all the latest facilities and high living standards to enjoy. It is science, with the help of which human beings have reached beyond space, stepped on the Moon, and sent a spacecraft to Mars.

There are a number of branches of science, out of which, earth science, physical science, and life science are the major branches, and are considered as pure sciences. Other branches of science such as engineering and technology are associated with the practical application scientific activity. Furthermore, these sciences are divided into many dedicated branches. As the world has evolved, sciences dedicated to the study of modern technology and its various aspects have also evolved.

INDEX
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Z


A
Acoustics: This science is the study of mechanical waves in solids, liquids and gases.
Accounting: This is the study of financial information about a business entity that is communicated to its shareholders.
Aerodynamics: This is the study of forces of air acting on objects in motion relative to air.
Aeronautical Engineering: This field is the study of the design and manufacture of flight-capable machines and techniques.
Agriculture: It is the science of cultivating the ground, harvesting crops, and rearing and management of farming, husbandry and livestock. It is associated with the production of food, fiber, feed, and other goods by systematic harvesting or growing plants and rearing animals.
Agronomy: This one is the scientific study of crop production and its usage for food, feed, fiber and fuel.
Algebra: Algebra is the mathematical study of structure, quantity, and relation, using symbols, letters and characters to represent numbers in mathematical expressions.
Anatomy: It is the study of the structure and organization of the human body.
Angiology: This branch of science studies blood and lymph vessels, and related disorders.
Anthropology: It is the study of past and present human cultures with respect to physical and social characteristics, historic facts, and geographical distribution.
Apiculture: This one is the science of raising bees. It involves cultivating and managing bee cultures for the commercial sale of honey.
Applied Mathematics: It is the science of using mathematical techniques in fields other than mathematics.
Aquaculture: It is the farming of aquatic animals and plants.
Archeology: This is the scientific study of physical evidence of past human civilizations and societies.
Astrochemistry: This branch studies how chemical elements react in the universe.
Astronomy: It is the scientific study of celestial objects and phenomena that take place outside the Earth's atmosphere.
Astrophysics: Astrophysics is the study of the physics of celestial bodies.
Atomic Physics: It is the study of the internal structure of atomic nuclei as an isolated system of electrons.
Audiology: It is the study of hearing and related disorders.
Automobile Engineering: This is a branch of engineering, with respect to the design, manufacture, and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks, and their engineering systems.

B
Bacteriology: It involves the study of bacteria in relation to disease and/or agriculture.
Behavioral Economics: It is the study of social and emotional effects on individuals, owing to economic designs and strategies of any particular firm or administration.
Biochemistry: It deals with the study of chemical substances and processes taking place in living organisms. It primarily focuses on structure, function, and the role of molecules.
Bioengineering: This is the application of engineering principles and techniques to structures and organs of living organisms.
Biology: Biology is the scientific study of life.
Biomechanics: It is the study of the structure and functioning of biological systems.
Biophysics: This is the science of applying principles of physics to understand biological systems.
Biotechnology: It involves researching industrial applications of living organisms.
Botany: This is the study of plant life.

C
Cardiology: It is the study of heart disorders.
Cartography: It is the study and practice of making maps.
Ceramic Engineering: It is the science of creating objects from non-metallic materials.
Chemical Engineering: This branch of engineering deals with design, construction, and operation of chemical plants and required machinery.
Chemistry: This is the science of studying and analyzing the composition of properties and reactions of any substance.
Civil Engineering: It involves the planning, designing, and constructing of structures such as buildings, roads, bridges, houses, etc.
Climatology: This branch is the study of prevailing weather conditions that are monitored over a period of time.
Cognitive Science: It is the scientific study of mental thought and learning.
Computer Science: It is the systematic study of computation and computing systems. It involves different theories for understanding the computing systems and methods, algorithms, design methodology and tools, methods of analysis and verification, and methods for testing the concepts.
Conservation Biology: It is the study of the Earth's biodiversity, and also involves protecting species against the danger of extinction owing to rapid modern development.
Conservation Science: This science is the study of cultural heritage conservation, using scientific methods.
Cosmetology: It is the practice of beautifying the skin and hair, using cosmetics.
Cosmology: Cosmology is the branch of physics that deals with nature, evolution, and structure of the universe.
Craniology: This is the study of the different physical characteristics of the skull.
Criminology: It is the scientific study of the nature, cause and thought process behind a crime.
Cryobiology: It is the study of the effects of low temperatures on various living things.
Cryogenics: This is the study of production, control, and application of low temperatures.
Cryptography: It is the science of decoding information for security purposes.
Crystallography: This is the science that studies the arrangement of atoms in solids.
Cybernetics: It is the study of regulatory systems and their structures.
Cytology: It is the study of the structure, origin, function, and pathology of cells.

D
Dactylography: It is the science of using fingerprints for identification purposes.
Demography: It is the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, population distribution, population density, etc.
Dentistry: It is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to teeth and oral cavities.
Dendrology: This is the study of wooded plants.
Dermatology: It is the study of skin structure and skin related diseases.
Dynamics: This is the study of various forces, their actions on bodies, and the changes in the motion they produce.

E
Ecclesiology: It is the theological study of the Christian Church.
Ecology: It studies the relationships shared by various living organisms on Earth.
Electronics: It is the branch of technology that deals with the development and application of circuit systems.
Embryology: This is the science of the development of an embryo, from the fertilization stage to the fetus stage.
Endocrinology: It is the study of functions and pathology of endocrine glands.
Engineering: It is the application of scientific, mechanical, and mathematical ideas to design processes, structures, and products that are meant to improve and ease out the quality of human life.
Entomology: This is the study of insects with respect to forests.
Environmental Chemistry: It is the study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that happens in natural places.
Environmental Science: It is the study of various components of the environment, and how they interact and relate to each other.
Epidemiology: This is the study of the cause and distribution of diseases in human beings.
Epistemology: It studies the extent and scope of knowledge and information.
Ergonomics: This is an applied science for designing equipment to boost productivity.
Ethnology: It is the study of the characteristics of different sets of people. It involves analyzing their origin, distribution, technology, religion, language and social structure.
Ethnovideography: This method uses video footage to study different cultures and sections of people.
Etiology: This is the study of the causes or origins of diseases.
Etymology: It is the study of a word's history and its meanings.
Eugenics: It is the study of improving human heredity using controlled breeding techniques.
Exobiology: This is the study of the effects of extraterrestrial things on living things.

F
Financial Economy: It is the branch of economics concerned with the allocation and deployment of economic resources.
Floriculture: It is the science of the cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants for gardening and floristry purposes.
Fluid Mechanics: This science is the study of fluids.
Forensic Science: This involves the application of various disciplines of science and technology, to establish facts/proofs as legal evidence with respect to criminal investigation.
Forestry: It is the science of managing forests and its resources to produce products for human benefit. For example, stuff like timber, acacia, paper, etc.

G
Galactic Astronomy: It is the study of the Milky Way and all its contents.
Game Theory: It is the study of strategic decision making.
Gemology: This is the study of gemstones.
Genetics: This is the study of genes and heredity.
Geochemistry: It involves the use of chemistry principles to research and explain facts about geological theories.
Geodesy: It is the science of measuring the size and shape of the Earth.
Geology: It is the study of solid earth (rocks, minerals, soil content, underground processes, etc).
Geometry: It is the study of mathematical phenomena in the form of shapes and figures. It involves calculating and working around with various shapes.
Geophysics: It is the study of the Earth which uses the principles of physics.
Geriatrics: This is the medical practice which focuses on addressing the complex needs of older patients.
Geomorphology: It is the study of the evolution of landforms.
Gerontology: This is the study of the social, psychological and biological aspects of aging.
Gynecology: This is the study of the female reproductive system.

H
Heliology: Heliology is the astronomical study of the sun.
Hematology: It is the study of blood, blood-forming organs, and blood-related diseases.
Hepatology: It is the study of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and the biliary tree.
Histology: This science is the study of the microscopic anatomy of the cells of living things.
Horticulture: It is the science of cultivating plants for commercial use.
Hydrology: It is the study of the movement and quality of water present on the Earth.
Hydroponics: It is the science of growing plants without soil; by using artificial mineral solutions.
Hydrostatics: This science involves studying fluid bodies that are at rest.
Hydrotherapy: It is the science of using water as treatment in various medical conditions.

I
Ichthyology: It is the scientific study of fish.
Iconography: It is the study of the identification, description, and interpretation of images (symbols, icons, themes, etc.)
Immunology: This is the study of the immune system of various living organisms.
Information Technology: It involves the use of computer science and electronic equipment to store, share, and manipulate data.

J
Jurisprudence: It is the study of law.

K
Kinesiology: It is the study of human movement.

L
Lexicography: It involves writing, editing or compiling dictionaries.
Library Science: It is the science of using tools of management for many aspects related to libraries.
Limonology: It is the study of inland waters.
Linguistics: Linguistics is the study of human language.

M
Macroeconomics: It studies the behavior of aggregate economy.
Mammalogy: This science is the study of mammals.
Mammography: It is the study of human breasts using a mammogram (a special kind of X-ray).
Managerial Economics: This involves the application of economic concepts to formulate managerial decisions.
Marine Biology: It is the study of organisms under the oceans.
Marketing: This is the science of communicating the value of a product or service to a consumer or prospective consumer.
Mathematics: It is the study of quantities, shapes, structures, spaces and their changes.
Mechanical Engineering: It is the science of using physics for the designing, analysis, and manufacturing of mechanical systems.
Mechanics: It is the study of physical forces and their effects on objects.
Medicine: It is the science of healing a disease or disorder using set medical practices.
Metallurgy: It is the science that deals with the procedures used for metal extraction.
Metaphysics: This is the division of philosophy that is concerned with the fundamental nature of reality.
Meteorology: Meteorology is the scientific study of atmosphere.
Microbiology: It is the study of microscopic organisms.
Microeconomics: It studies the behavior of individual entities to understand and analyze a firm's decision-making process.
Mineralogy: It is the study of the origin, formation, and classification of minerals.
Missiology: It is the theological study of the purpose of the Church.
Microbiology: It is a biological study done at the molecular level.
Morphology (Biology): It is the study of the form and structure of organisms.
Morphology (Linguistics): It is the study of the structure and content of word forms.
Museology: It is the study of museums, their history, and the role that they have in the society.
Musicology: It is the scholarly study of music.
Mycology: It is the study of fungi, their genetic and biological structures, and their uses and dangers.
Myology: It is the study of muscular systems.

N
Nanotechnology: This is the study of manipulation of matter on an atomic or molecular level.
Narcotic Science: It is the study of addictive drugs, their various harms and effects.
Naval Engineering: This branch of engineering is related to designing, construction, operation and maintenance of marine structures.
Nephrology: It is the study of the functions and diseases of the kidney.
Neurology: This field deals with the disorders of the nervous systems.
Nuclear Engineering: It deals with the fission of atomic nuclei.
Nuclear Physics: It is the study of interaction of the nuclei.
Numismatics: Numismatics is the study of currency.
Nutrition Science: It is the study of the metabolic and physiological response of the body to a set diet or particular sets of diets.

O
Obstetrics: It deals with the care of women during pregnancy.
Oceanography: It is the study of the ocean.
Odontology: This science is the study of each individual's dental structure.
Oncology: It is the science that deals with tumors and cancers.
Oneirology: It is the scientific study of dreams.
Ophthalmology: This is the study of the structure and diseases related to the eye.
Optics: It is the study of light behavior and its properties with respect to its interaction with various types of matter (solid, liquid or gas).
Organic Chemistry: It deals with the structure, properties, and reactions of compounds that contain carbon.
Ornithology: It is the study of birds.
Osteology: It is the study of bones.

P
Paleoclimatology: It is the study of the climate of the Earth throughout its history.
Paleoecology: It is the study of fossil organisms using data from fossils and sub-fossils.
Paleontology: This is the scientific study of prehistoric life.
Palynology: It is the study of dust.
Parasitology: It is the study of parasites.
Particle Physics: This branch of science is the study of the existence of particles that constitute matter.
Pathology: It is the scientific study of disease processes.
Petrology: It is the study of the origin, formation, structure, and distribution of rocks.
Pharmacology: This is the study of drug action.
Pharmacy: It deals with the effective and safe use of drugs for diseases and disorders.
Phenomenology: It is the study of the structures of consciousness.
Philately: It is the study of postal stamps.
Philology: This is the study of languages from historical sources.
Phonetics: It is the study of the sounds of human speech.
Photochemistry: It is the study of chemical reactions when a molecule absorbs a photon of light.
Phycology: It is the study of algae.
Physical Chemistry: It involves the application of physics to the study of chemical systems.
Physics: Physics is the study of matter and its behavior through space and time.
Physiography: It is the study of the physical patterns of the Earth.
Physiology: It is the study of biological functions in living beings.
Plasma Physics: It is the study of charged particles interacting with each other under electric and magnetic fields.
Podiatry: It is the study of the disorders of the foot and ankle.
Political Philosophy: It is the study of politics, liberty, justice, poverty etc.
Polymer Engineering: This field deals with the design and analysis of polymer material.
Pomology: It is the study of the cultivation, harvesting and storage of pome fruit.
Protozoology: It is the study of protozoan animals.
Pseudoscience: It is the science that presents facts as science, but is not supported by any scientific methods; hence, lacking any credibility.
Psychology: It is the study of mental behavior, and functions and reactions of the mind under various circumstances and instances.
Pulmonology: It is the study of diseases related to the respiratory tract.

Q
Quantum Mechanics: It is the study of microscopic material using the properties of physics.
Queer Studies: It is the study of issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity.

R
Radiobiology: It is the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things.
Radiochemistry: It is the study of ordinary chemical reactions under radioactive circumstances.
Radiology: This field of chemistry deals with imaging to diagnose and treat disease within the human body.
Rheumatology: It is the study of rheumatic diseases.
Robotics: It deals with the designing, construction, and operation of robots.

S
Scientific Modeling: It is the science of generating abstract, conceptual, graphical or mathematical models.
Seismology: It is the scientific study of earthquakes.
Semiotics: Semiotics is the study of the sign system.
Sericulture: It involves rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk.
Serpentology: It is the study of snakes.
Silviculture: It is the science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and harvesting of forests.
Sociology: It is the scientific study of human society and its origins, practices, evolution, organizations, and institutions.
Soil Biology: It is the study of microbial and faunal activity in soil.
Speech Therapy: It is the study of communication disorder.
Statics: It is the study of physical systems in static equilibrium, when force is applied.
Statistics: This science explores collecting and organizing data. Over the years, analyzing and studying this data has also become an important part of the statistics field.
Stellar Astronomy: It is the study of stars, their origins, and their evolution.
Suicidology: It is the scientific study of suicides, its causes and effects.
Supramolecular Chemistry: It is the study of the chemistry of assembled molecular sub-units.
Surface Science: It is the theoretical study of the physics and chemistry of surfaces and their behavior.
Systematics: This is the study of the biological diversity and its origins and evolution.

T
Taxonomy: It involves the classification of organisms in an ordered manner, but in such a way that natural relationships between them are/can be established.
Telecommunication Engineering: It is the science of developing physical and logical applications of computer science, using principles of electrical and mechanical engineering.
Textile Engineering: It involves the use of engineering principles and methodologies to make textiles.
Therapeutics: This is the study of medical treatments and the action of remedial agents.
Thermodynamics: It is the study of heat and its effects.
Topology: It is the mathematical study of the properties of objects that are preserved even after deformation.
Transdisciplinarity: This research methodology covers two or more fields and branches of various sciences at once.
Traumatology: It is the study of the wounds and injuries caused due to physical violence or accidents, and also involves psychological therapy to repair the damage.

U
Urology: It deals with the male reproductive system and human urinary tracts.

V
Virology: It is the study of viruses.
Viticulture: It is the science related to the production of grapes.

W
Welfare Economics: It is the science of the optimal allocation of resources and goods, and its effects on the welfare of society.

Z
Zoology: It is the branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life in general.

We have come a long way from sending telegrams to sending e-mails, texts, etc. We now know that the Earth revolves around the Sun instead of the other way round. We can predict natural calamities instead of waiting for them to show up all of a sudden and cause large-scale damage. Science has made all this possible. Science develops at a rapid pace, and is always improvising. With so many sciences dedicated to various fields, progress can be witnessed in each and every walk of life all the time.